206 A BICENTENNIAL HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI in 1830, there were 2,472 slaves counted in the census. By 1850, that number rose to 10,349. These numbers reflected a cotton boom that spurred the economies of not only the plantation counties, but those of surrounding areas as well. Simpson County exemplified this spillover effect. In addition to its access to timber, the county held a tannery as early as 1820. Thirty years later, Simpson County residents had access to five sawmills, four grist mills, three cotton gins, and two tanneries and finishing shops. Magee, which is located in the southeastern part of the county, became well known for its lumber distribution. The economic infrastructure of Madison County followed a similar pattern. Among the capital city counties, its communities were perhaps the most deeply BELHAVEN UNIVERSITY Founded in 1883, Belhaven University sits in the historic Belhaven neighborhood of Jackson. Known for its longtime connection to the Presbyterian Church, the Christian institution offers seventy different areas of study to its population of 4,500 students. Belhaven is also nationally accredited for each of the major arts–one of only thirty-six universities in the country. In addition to the high quality undergraduate programs on its main campus, Belhaven offers a number of graduate and adult degree programs in Jackson, Memphis, Atlanta, and Chattanooga. In recent years, Belhaven has been named multiple times as one of “America’s 100 Best College Buys.” invested in large-scale cotton production. But the county also became well known for livestock (mules, horses, and beef and dairy cattle) and fruit farming (peaches, apples, and strawberries). As landowners made the transition into cotton as its cash crop, industry followed. Timber was plentiful in the area, and a number of lumber companies were born out of that abundance. The county also experienced the emergence of a banking industry that contributed significantly to its growth and development through the years. As the economy developed and diversified, educational institutions followed. While state-funded public education would not exist until after the Civil War, each of the six counties in the Capital Area provided opportunities for white children through private academies. Because of their PHOTO COURTESY OF BELHAVEN UNIVERSITY