THE CAPITAL AREA 207 dependencies on private funding and qualified teachers, these schools were often short-lived. For example, between 1832 and 1860, Copiah County was home to several private schools, including the Gallatin Female Academy, Gallatin Female Seminary, Gallatin Male Academy, Crystal Springs Gady School, Rutledge Academy, Newton Institute, Old Crystal Springs Academy, and Millsaps School. Madison County experienced similar patterns in its educational offerings. As early as 1836, the town of Canton provided educational opportunities to young women through the Canton Female Academy. A year later, the Canton Male Academy was established. The same year, the Male and Female Academies were opened in Madisonville. The Sharon community also sought to educate its young people and established the Sharon Female Academy (1836) and the Sharon Male Academy (1838). In Rankin County, the Masonic Institute at Fannin (1836), Richland Academy (1859), and Hebron Academy (1859) offered secondary and vocational education to children in the county. Centers for higher education also existed in the Capital As the economy developed and diversified, educational institutions followed. TOUGALOO COLLEGE Plans to establish Tougaloo College officially began in 1869 when the American Missionary Association of New York purchased 500 acres of land in Jackson. Tougaloo received its name charter two years later in 1871. In addition to its rigorous academic programs—which span a variety fields including the humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences—the historically African American college is revered around the country for its long history of social activism, particularly its courageous commitment to improving race relations in the state. During the tense years of the 1960s, students and faculty of Tougaloo helped lead the Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi and also opened their campus as a refuge for activists such as the Freedom Riders and countless others. Today, under the leadership of Beverly Wade Hogan—the college’s thirteenth president and first female president—Tougaloo fosters an exceptional standard of learning for its students, preparing them to succeed in the community and the world at large, all while staying true to its long-term goals of moral and social progress. PHOTO COURTESY OF TOUGALOO COLLEGE