NORTH MISSISSIPPI 435 agriculture, and Christianity. However, the vast majority of white settlers argued that the only way Native Americans could escape extinction was removal across the Mississippi. In 1828, the Mississippi General Assembly memorialized Congress, stating that a large body of the most valuable territory within the boundaries of the state was occupied by “savage Indian tribes, interspersed [with] disorderly whites” who corrupted them with alcohol, “rapidly extinguishing their numbers and entirely hostile to the progress of civilization.” The memorial urged Congress to liquidate the Native American title to the land. In contrast, John Allen, U.S. agent to the tribe, reported large herds of domesticated animals and extensive cultivation of cotton, corn, wheat, and other crops. “The proceeds from the sales of cotton, horses, beef cattle, hogs, etc., after retaining a sufficiency for home consumption are generally applied to the purchase of necessaries and luxuries of life.” In the same year, Chickasaw planters shipped more than 1,000 bales of cotton. The mixed bloods led the way in adopting slavery and the raising of cotton. The most successful of all the mixed- blood clans was founded by Scottish trader James Logan Colbert, who arrived among the Chickasaw in 1729, quickly intermarried, inherited land and influence through his wives, raised cotton, and accumulated huge herds of cattle and 150 slaves. Colbert passed on his wealth and influence to his sons and grandsons. By 1830, one-fourth of the Chickasaw were of mixed ancestry. In a series of treaties with the United States, the Chickasaw conceded their vast holdings in western Tennessee, opening up 20 million acres to white settlement, while attempt-ing to preserve their traditional heartland in northern Mississippi. The mixed-blood clan led by Levi Colbert, one of James Logan Colbert’s sons, negotiated skillfully, winning concessions and buying time, attempting to save as much of their land and wealth as possible. In 1826, Levi Colbert told federal negotiators that if his people were to move westward across the Mississippi, it “may be similar to transplanting an old tree, which would wither and die away.” What broke the resistance of the Chickasaw to removal were two laws passed in 1830: in Washington, the Indian Removal Act, which authorized President Andrew Jackson to negotiate with tribes to exchange their lands for new lands west of the Mississippi, and in Jackson, the law the state legislature passed that extended jurisdiction over Native Americans in Mississippi and extinguished tribal government. The mixed-blood leadership concluded that they had no choice but to negotiate for the best terms possible to save as much of their wealth as possible. The Chickasaw were able to delay removal for an additional seven years. Levi Colbert reported to Washington ROWAN OAK The Rowan Oak house, which sits on more than twenty-nine acres of land in Oxford, was originally built in the 1840s by an immigrant from Ireland. The home was known as “The Bailey Place” until William Faulkner bought it and the surrounding woods in 1930, renaming the home after the Rowan tree. Faulkner lived with his family at Rowan Oak near Oxford for just over thirty years. Despite never earning a high school or college degree, Faulkner became one of the twentieth century’s most acclaimed writers, receiving the Nobel Prize for literature in 1950. After Faulkner’s death, his daughter sold Rowan Oak and its grounds to the University of Mississippi so it could be used to educate visitors about Faulkner and his writings. Now, Rowan Oak is open to visitors throughout the year. The home has been preserved as Faulkner kept it, including an outline of his novel A Fable etched on the walls of an upstairs office. PHOTO BY GREG CAMPBELL